Summary: Drinking at least two cups of coffee a day, even instant coffee, is linked to longer life and lower risk of cardiovascular disease.
Source: European Society of Cardiology
Drinking two to three cups of coffee a day is associated with longer life and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared to avoiding coffee, according to research published today. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ESC magazine. The findings were applied to ground, instant and decaffeinated varieties.
“In this large observational study, ground, instant, and decaffeinated coffee were associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular disease or death from any cause,” said study author Professor Peter Kiesler of Baker Heart and Diabetes Research. Institute said. Melbourne, Australia
“The results suggest that drinking light to medium-ground, instant and decaffeinated coffee should be considered part of a healthy lifestyle.”
Little is known about the effects of various coffee preparations on heart health and survival.
This study examined the association between types of coffee and risk of heart disease, coronary artery disease and death in adults aged 40 to 69 using data from the UK Biobank.
Cardiovascular disease includes heart disease, heart failure and ischemic stroke.
The study included 449,563 participants who were free of arrhythmias or other cardiovascular disease at baseline. The average age was 58 years and 55.3% were women.
Participants completed a questionnaire asking how many cups of coffee they drank each day and whether they drank instant, ground (such as cappuccino or filtered coffee), or decaffeinated. They were then categorized into six daily intake categories that included none, one, two to three, four to five, and more than five cups.
The usual type of coffee was consumed in 198,062 (44.1%) participants, ground in 82,575 (18.4%), and decaffeinated in 68,416 (15.2%). 100,510 (22.4%) non-drinkers served as the comparison group.
Coffee drinkers were compared with people for arrhythmias, cardiovascular disease, and death after adjusting for age, sex, race, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, sleep apnea, smoking status, and tea and alcohol consumption.
Outcome data were obtained from medical records and death records. The average follow-up was 12.5 years.
A total of 27,809 (6.2%) participants died during follow-up. All types of coffee have been associated with reduced mortality from any cause. The greatest risk was seen for two to three cups a day, which was 14%, 27% and 11% lower in caffeine, ground and instant preparations compared to drinking coffee.
During follow-up, cardiovascular disease was detected in 43,173 (9.6%) participants. All types of coffee have been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease.
Again, the lowest risk was observed with two to three cups per day, which reduced the risk of cardiovascular disease by 6%, 20% and 9% compared to abstaining from coffee, ground, instant coffee, respectively.
Arthritis was diagnosed in 30,100 (6.7%) participants during follow-up. Ground and instant coffee, but not decaf, has been linked to a reduction in arteriosclerosis, including atrial fibrillation.
Compared to non-drinkers, the lowest risks were 17 percent and 12 percent lower for those who consumed four to five cups of ground coffee per day and two to three cups of instant coffee per day.
“Caffeine is the most well-known ingredient in coffee, but the drink contains more than 100 biologically active compounds,” Professor Kiesler said. Caffeine-free compounds may be responsible for positive associations between coffee consumption, cardiovascular disease, and survival.
“Our findings suggest that drinking moderate amounts of coffee should not be discouraged, but may be enjoyed as a heart-healthy behavior.”
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Author: Justin Pinot.
Source: European Society of Cardiology
Contact: Justin Pinot – European Society of Cardiology
Image: The image is in the public domain.
Preliminary study: Open Access.
“Effects of coffee subtypes on cardiovascular disease, arrhythmias and mortality: long-term results from the UK Biobank.” by Peter Kiesler et al European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Effects of coffee subtypes on cardiovascular disease, arrhythmias and mortality: long-term results from the UK Biobank.
Epidemiological studies have reported beneficial effects of habitual coffee consumption on risk of arrhythmia, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality. However, the effects of various coffee preparations on cardiovascular outcomes and survival are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between coffee subtypes using the UK Biobank.
Methods and results
Coffee subtypes such as decaffeinated, ground and instant, then to 0; <1፣ 1፣ 2–3፣ 4-5 እና > 5 cups per day divided and compared to those who did not drink. Cardiovascular diseases include heart disease, heart failure and ischemic stroke. Cox regression modeling with hazard ratios (HRs) assessed associations with risk of arrhythmia, CVD, and death. Outcomes were determined by ICD codes and death records. A total of 449 563 participants (median 58 years, 55.3% women) were followed up over 12.5 ± 0.7 years.
Ground and instant coffee consumption of 1-5 cups per day significantly reduced the risk of arthritis, but not decaffeinated coffee.
The lowest risk was 4-5 cups of ground coffee per day. [HR 0.83, confidence interval (CI) 0.76–0.91, P < 0.0001] and 2–3 cups/day for instant coffee (HR 0.88, CI 0.85–0.92, P<0.0001) All types of coffee were associated with a reduction in CVD (minimum risk was 2-3 cups per day for caffeine deprivation). P= 0.0093; land, P<0.0001; and instant coffee, P<0.0001) versus non-drinkers.
All-cause mortality was significantly reduced for all types of coffee, with the greatest reduction in risk for those who consumed 2–3 cups of caffeine per day (HR 0.86, CI 0.81–0.91, P<0.0001); land (HR 0.73, CI 0.69–0.78, P<0.0001); and instant coffee (HR 0.89, CI 0.86–0.93, P<0.0001)
Decanted, ground, and instant coffee, typically 2-3 cups per day, are associated with significant reductions in CVD risk and death. Ground and instant but not decaf coffee has been linked to a reduction in arrhythmia.